Fittings are piping system components used to connect pipes together and help change the direction of fluid flow. Different types of fittings are used in piping systems. The main and most commonly sought are elbows, tees, crosses, reducers, couplings, caps, bushings, valves, and flanges to name a few. The following is a detailed description of the fittings.
Pipe fittings are available in various shapes and sizes. The following is a list of fittings commonly used in piping projects.
Elbows are used more often than any other tubing. If a change in flow direction is required, threaded or socket-welded pipe elbows are often used. The two most common types of elbows are 90° and 45°. However, it can be trimmed to any degree and is an important fitting for use in piping.
A pipe tee is used to distribute or collect fluid in a running pipe. The tee is T-shaped and has two outlets - at 90° to the connection of the main pipe. It is a short tube with a lateral outlet. A pipe tee is used to connect a pipe to a pipe at right angles.
A cross fitting is a 4-way fitting, which is essentially a combination of two tees.
Pipe bushings usually have internal and external threads and are used to connect pipes of different sizes. They take up very little space compared to couplings or fittings and can achieve the same goal of reducing size. They have hexagonal heads for added leverage and for use with wrenches.
Caps feature stainless steel 304 or 316 cast fittings with National Pipe Taper (NPT) female threads. Used to close the end of a male pipe. It is also used for future connections in the header. Caps are placed over the end of the male pipe to stop the flow. They are also available with hex and square heads for added leverage and for use with wrenches during installation and removal.
Flanges are used to connect pipes. The pipe is threaded onto the flange and then the flanges are sealed together with bolts. Flange connections are widely used in industrial applications that deal with high pressures.
A pipe fitting is a short pipe joint that has external pipe threads at one or both ends. It is used to connect two other fittings together. Pipes, hoses, and valves are connected by half fittings. This makes them perfect for connecting two fixed pipes that cannot be screwed into a conventional fitting. Unions also make future repairs easier.
A pipe coupling is used to extend the operation of a pipe or to change the size of a pipe. When reducing it, it is called a bell reducer. Available in a female thread or socket weld.
Valves are designed to control flow pressure and flow rate.
Pipe shrinkers reduce the diameter of the pipe. In piping, there are two types of reducers: concentric and eccentric.
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